Antibodies to Molds and Satratoxin in Individuals Exposed in Waterdamaged Buildings: Mold Immune System
Immunological problems often linked to mold exposure in water damaged buildings
The Study Group
A study was done on 1,500 individuals, 500 of whom were exposed to mold, 500 who served as healthy blood donor controls, and 500 random patients.
Those exposed to mold had been referred to the laboratory for immunotoxicological evaluation or for measurements of mold antibody levels. The blood of all three groups was tested for the presence of IgA, IgM, and IgG antibodies against three molds: 1) Penicillium notatum, 2) Aspergillus niger Stachybotrys chartarum and 3) satratoxin H, a toxic byproduct of Stachybotrys chartarum. Results showed that all three types of antibodies were significantly greater in those exposed to molds when compared to the control group.
Ultimately, the healthy control group was different from both the random patients and patients exposed to mold, indicating that when compared to healthy blood donors, patients referred for immunological evaluation were more likely to have been exposed to mold.
Using the environmental treatment protocol can help treat environmental mold.
Authors: Aristo Vojdani1; Jack D. Thrasher2; Roberta A. Madison3; Michael R. Gray4; Andrew W.
Campbell5; Gunnar Heuser6
Published in Archives of Environmental Health, 2003; 58:421-32
IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies against Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger,
Stachybotrys chartarum and satratoxin H were determined in the blood of 500 healthy
blood donor controls, 500 random patients and 500 patients exposed to molds. The
patients were referred to the laboratory for immunotoxicological evaluation or for
measurements of mold antibody levels. The IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies against the
molds were significantly greater in the patients (p<0.001 for all measurements) vs the
controls. However, levels of these antibodies against satratoxin were significantly
different in mold-exposed patients only for IgG (P<0.001) but not for IgM and IgA
levels. These differences in the level of mold antibodies among three different groups
were confirmed by calculation of Z score and Scheffé significant difference tests. Using
the general linear model for windows 11.5 in the majority of cases, three different subsets
were formed. This meant that the healthy control groups were different from the random
patients and the mold-exposed patients. These findings indicate that in comparison to
healthy blood donors, mold exposure is more common in patients who were referred for
immunological evaluation. The detection of antibodies to molds and satratoxin H
probably results from the antigenic stimulation of the immune system and reaction of
serum with specially prepared mold antigens. These antigens with high protein content,
which were developed in this laboratory, were used in the ELISA procedure. It is
concluded that the antibodies are specific to mold antigens and mycotoxins and that they
can be used in epidemiological and other studies of humans exposed to molds and
Finally, the detection of IgG antibodies to Satratoxin H shows that the mycotoxin and/or
spores and hyphae containing the mycotoxin can behave as an antigen. This probably
occurs by binding to carrier mold proteins, and a presentation of cells involved in the
immune system responsible for antigen presentation and subsequent antibody production.
Similar observations have been reported for aflatoxin B1, patulin and Ochratoxin A used
as a hapten.107-112
1. Immunosciences Lab., Inc., Beverly Hills, California
2. Sam-1 Trust, Alto, New Mexico
3. Department of Health Sciences, California State University, Northridge
4. Progressive Health Care Group, Benson, Arizona
5. Center for Immune and Environmental Toxic Disorders, Spring, Texas
6. NeuroMed and NeuroTox Associates, Agoura Hills, California
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